HomeDataInvasive Species HandbookNicotiana glauca

Nicotiana glauca

Scientific Name: Nicotiana Glauca
Common Name: Tree Tobacco
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Morphological Description:
Flowers/Fruits:
The flowers are tubular, 3-4 cm long, greenish yellow in color and have styles 18 to 20 mm in length.
Leaves:
attached to the stalk by petioles

Habitat & Basic Biology (life history, dispersal abilities):
Branches profusely and can grow vigorously to a height of 3 meters after substantial rainfall. This species has traits comparable with other arid zone weed species. Flowering occurs one year after germination and a fully grown plant can produce 10,000 to 1,000,000 seeds.
The most effective mode of long distance travel is via hydrochory.
Found in open and disturbed areas; wastelands, roadsides, and creek lines.
Toxic and non palatable to humans
Hummingbirds appear to be the only pollinator

Functional traits (photosynthetic rates, phenology, etc.):
Optimal temperatures for germination are unknown

Distribution (geographic range): Native to South America

Control Methods:
Mechanical:
Hand pulling for smaller saplings; weed wrench for larger shrubs

Biological:
minor susceptibility to tobacco mosaic virus

Chemical:
Herbicide treatment

Evolution (of traits in novel range):
Nicotiana glauca has evolved its corolla length to work in different environments, as an invasive species in other places, researchers noticed different lengths of corolla around the world. The corolla is shorter in non-native populations than in native populations

Performance of invader in CA (interactions with species native to S. CA):
Leachates from dry leaves and twigs of Nicotiana glauca have a negative impact on the germination of other plant seeds
Nicotiana Glauca succeeds best after floods in flood lands where it establishes quickly and can grow very quickly.

Natural enemies:
None known.

List of References:
Cruzan, Mitchell B. “Pollen Tube Distributions in Nicotiana Glauca: Evidence for Density Dependent Growth.” JSTOR. California State University, Fullerton, 6 June 1986. Web. 9 June 2014.

Pollen tube growth was analyzed for evidence of density dependent growth; enhanced growth indicated higher density.

Florentine, S.K. 2005. The arid land invasive weed Nicotiana glauca. Journal of Arid Environments, 66 (2006) 218-230.
Study on how N. glauca responded to flood events, and 7 years after the flood event.

Nattero, Julieta. “Geographic Variation of Floral Traits in Nicotiana Glauca: Relationships with Biotic and Abiotic Factors.” ResearchGate. Universidad Nacional De Córdoba, Sept. 2011. Web. 9 June 2014.

Nattero and colleagues tested for associations between floral traits and climatic variables and found that floral traits seem to be structured not only by altitude but also by climatic factors.

Ollerton, Jeff. “Journal of Pollination Ecology.” Pollination Ecology of the Invasive Tree Tobacco Nicotiana Glauca : Comparisons across Native and Non-native Ranges. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 2012. Web. 10 June 2014.
Ollerton and colleagues analyze the performance of N. glauca outside its native range and find it to be highly succesful.

Major, Jack, and E. K. Woodford. “Weed Control Handbook.” American Midland Naturalist 67.2 (1962): 509. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. UC Davis. Web. 9 June 2014.

An excerpt from the Weed Control handbook provides a detailed description of Nicotiana Glauca control methods.