Scientific Name: Picris echioides
Common Name: Bristly Ox tongue
Yellow flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, apomictic.
harvests two types of achenes as fruits
Form a basal rosette.
Base of leaf looks like a petiole.
Blade – Basal and lower stem leaves, narrowly egg shape, up to 70-200 mm long by 25 mm wide, irregularly wavy toothed or smooth edges with bristles. Acute tip. Narrowed into a petiole like base.
Stem leaves – Upper leaves, alternate, stiff hairs, narrowly egg shaped, up to 100 mm long by 20 mm wide
upper surface pimply, edges have short bristles
Habitat & Basic Biology (life history, dispersal abilities):
A dicot, annual and perennial herb
invades mostly in wetlands or non wetland areas
Functional traits (photosynthetic rates, phenology, etc.):
Seeds germinate from autumn into spring.
Distribution (geographic range):
Found in mostly wet areas, is a winter or summer annual. Found commonly in California except in coastal areas.
Removing isolated plants by hand and spraying weed control in the winter every year
Evolution (of traits in novel range):
Performance of invader in CA (interactions with species native to S. CA):
Forms dense stands in areas near coastal grasslands, affecting natives
No known natural enemies
List of References:
Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of Calif. Herbaria. [web application]. 2014. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database [a non-profit organization]. Available: http://www.calflora.org/ (Accessed: Jun 09, 2014).
Major, Jack, and E. K. Woodford. “Weed Control Handbook.” American Midland Naturalist 67.2 (1962): 509. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. UC Davis, 2012. Web. 9 June 2014.
A Weed Report from a book that describes Picris echioides in detail, including control methods.
“Ox-tongue.” Ox-tongue. HerbiGuide, n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <http://www.herbiguide.com.au/Descriptions/hg_Oxtongue.htm>.
HerbiGuide provides information on weeds and pests to assist in crop protection.
“Picris Echioides (bristly Oxtongue).” Cal-IPC. Cal-IPC, n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Picris_echioides.php>.
The California Invasive Plant Council provides comprehensive overview on invasive plant species such as Picris Echioides.
“Picris Echioides” Picris Echioides. Plants for a Future, n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Picris+echioides>.
Plants for a Future maintains a plant database to provide information on ecologically sustainable horticulture,