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Picris echioides

Scientific Name: Picris echioides
Common Name: Bristly Ox tongue

Line Drawing:

Morphological Description:
Yellow flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, apomictic.
harvests two types of achenes as fruits
Form a basal rosette.
Base of leaf looks like a petiole.
Blade – Basal and lower stem leaves, narrowly egg shape, up to 70-200 mm long by 25 mm wide, irregularly wavy toothed or smooth edges with bristles. Acute tip. Narrowed into a petiole like base.
Stem leaves – Upper leaves, alternate, stiff hairs, narrowly egg shaped, up to 100 mm long by 20 mm wide
upper surface pimply, edges have short bristles

Habitat & Basic Biology (life history, dispersal abilities):
A dicot, annual and perennial herb
invades mostly in wetlands or non wetland areas

Functional traits (photosynthetic rates, phenology, etc.):
Seeds germinate from autumn into spring.

Distribution (geographic range):

Found in mostly wet areas, is a winter or summer annual. Found commonly in California except in coastal areas.

Control Methods:
Removing isolated plants by hand and spraying weed control in the winter every year

Evolution (of traits in novel range):
None known.

Performance of invader in CA (interactions with species native to S. CA):
Forms dense stands in areas near coastal grasslands, affecting natives

Natural enemies:
No known natural enemies

List of References:
Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of Calif. Herbaria. [web application]. 2014. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database [a non-profit organization]. Available:   (Accessed: Jun 09, 2014).

Major, Jack, and E. K. Woodford. “Weed Control Handbook.” American Midland Naturalist 67.2 (1962): 509. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. UC Davis, 2012. Web. 9 June 2014.
A Weed Report from a book that describes Picris echioides in detail, including control methods.

“Ox-tongue.” Ox-tongue. HerbiGuide, n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <>.
HerbiGuide provides information on weeds and pests to assist in crop protection.

“Picris Echioides (bristly Oxtongue).” Cal-IPC. Cal-IPC, n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <>.
The California Invasive Plant Council provides comprehensive overview on invasive plant species such as Picris Echioides.

“Picris Echioides” Picris Echioides. Plants for a Future, n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <>.
Plants for a Future maintains a plant database  to provide information on ecologically sustainable horticulture,